Skin - a body covering all human or animal body.Despite the seeming simplicity of the outer skin - a very complex system, because it takes part in breathing organism, thermoregulation, and protects against environmental influences.Skin diseases can make the quality of life is worse, some of them significantly alter their way of life of the patient.In this article, we consider the most common skin disease. Content
skin - is a complex structure that includes multiple layers, subcutaneous fat, the roots of the hair, pores, fine nerve endings, etc..The structure of the skin can be seen schematically in the following figure:
Skin diseases are widespread.Up to 15% of visits to the GP due to these diseases.The most common diseases of the skin such as:
This is a group of inflammatory skin disease characterized by the a
hives - frequent disease of the skin of an allergic nature.It can develop at any age, be acute and chronic.It is manifested appearance of a kind of rash, after the sting, itching and reddening of the skin.Acute allergic urticaria with lesions of the deep layers of the skin and subcutaneous tissue (angioedema) may threaten the patient's life.
atopic dermatitis occurs in 3% of infants, its first symptoms usually appear when the child reaches the age of 3 months, the disease is associated mainly with the beginning of the introduction of complementary foods.In the future, the disease becomes chronic relapsing course.It is characterized by a genetic predisposition.With age, with the development of the sebaceous and sweat glands, atopic dermatitis usually resolves.By 6 years of existence of the disease disappear in 60%, and by adolescence - 90% of children.
Limited neurodermatitis manifested long existing centers of itching and flaking on a limited area of the skin.
Eczema usually affects middle-aged people (20 - 40 years).The disease is most often triggered by emotional tension.Symptoms usually persist for a long time, up to several weeks or even months.
xeroderma - frequent disease in the elderly.Affected skin is usually the legs.The disease is accompanied by dry skin, surface cracking and itching.The disease often goes unrecognized, but it can and should be treated.
Seborrheic dermatitis - a very common disease.It may occur in infants (usually before the age of 3 months), as well as adults of all ages.Exacerbation of the disease is often triggered by emotional tension and fatigue.Most children seborrheic dermatitis passes to 2 years.
Contact dermatitis can be simple (occurs immediately after exposure to an irritant) or have an allergic nature.Simple contact dermatitis occurs after contact with acids, alkalis, detergents.Allergic contact dermatitis is often an occupational disease.
hyperkeratosis - a condition characterized by excessive formation of surface skin cells - the epidermis.It can be caused by external or internal factors.
The most frequent localization of this process - the foot.Hyperkeratosis stop there at least 40% of women and 20% men.This is due to the increased load on the foot, walking in high heels, wearing tight shoes, flat feet.
to diseases accompanied by hyperkeratosis relates ichthyosis, psoriasis and other diseases.Psoriasis - a chronic skin disease of unknown origin.Prevalence it is 2 - 3%.In most cases, the disease begins at age 10 - 30 years.Characterized by a genetic predisposition: if the psoriasis sick one parent, the risk of a child is 25% if both parents are sick - then 65%.
Skin cancer is about 10% of all cancers.The risk of it increases with age.Malignancy occurs mostly in areas exposed to solar radiation (face, neck).In 80% of cases, the disease develops from an ordinary mole.
The so-called birthmarks (birthmarks) should be treated carefully and regularly inspected.If brown spots start to grow in size, its surface has changed, has become bumpy, it changed color - an urgent need to go to the doctor-oncologist.In the early stages of skin cancer is completely curable.
Distinguish following types of acne:
boils and carbuncles - a kind of purulent skin disease, manifested by an abscess at the site of the hair follicle.These diseases account for up to ¼ of all skin diseases.Cause they often staphylococci, and may be a predisposing factor for poor hygiene, microtrauma of the skin, excessive sweating, hypothermia or overheating of the skin.The emergence of purulent skin diseases contribute to diseases such as diabetes, immunodeficiency, protein starvation and overwork.
nevi - a mole and larger birthmarks.They are almost all men.Most often, they do not cause any anxiety, sometimes causing a cosmetic defect.Nevi may come and go throughout life.Changing the shape, color, surface nevus should force a person to see a doctor to rule out malignant degeneration birthmark.
Warts - a benign viral skin.The infectious nature of the disease explains why warts can be transmitted by contact with a sick person (except senile warts).Predisposing factors: excessive sweating, fatigue, autonomic dysfunction in adolescence, immunodeficiency.
Dermatophytosis - a group of diseases caused by fungi.This is one of the most common skin diseases.Thus, fungal infection of the nails (onychomycosis) occurs in almost 18% of the population, and among elderly people - 50%.
People over 70 years of existence is a kind of reservoir of onychomycosis.Very often they do not go to the doctor and treated.This results in the spread of infection in the family of the elderly person.The infection is then given around in pools, baths, showers.The high prevalence of onychomycosis in a fairly closed professional groups (soldiers, miners, athletes, metallurgy).
Fungal infection of the scalp and smooth skin occurs less frequently, but is also highly contagious (contagious).It is understood that in the healthy appearance of the skin and nails tinea unlikely.This disease is often a symptom of a serious disadvantage in the immune, endocrine and cardiovascular systems of humans.
thus considered the most common skin disease, it can be said that the timely detection of all of them respond well to treatment.It is only necessary to treat yourself and your loved ones with care.