April
27
23:00
Gastroenterology

Medicines for diarrhea: a review of antidiarrheal drugs for adults

diarrhea (diarrhea) - a liquid or mushy stools frequency 2-3 times a day or more, 200 ml or more, which is accompanied by extra urging to stool or fecal incontinence.This problem is very common in the world: it is one of the most common reasons for which patients seek medical attention.

Pharmacological preparations eliminate diarrhea in different ways and are used as pathogenic, and some - and causal treatment of this condition.We present you the review of antidiarrheal drugs that are usually prescribed by doctors for the correction of the pathological condition.

Content

  • 1 Classification antidiarrheal drugs
  • 2 antimicrobial agents used in intestinal infections
    • 2.1 Fluoroquinolones
    • 2.2 Sulfanilamides
    • 2.3 Intestinal antiseptics
    • 2.4 Antifungals
  • 3 Enterosorbents
    • 3.1 Activated carbon
    • 3.2 Sorbeks
    • 3.3 diosmectite (Smecta)
    • 3.4 Enterosgel (hydrogel methylsilicic acid)
    • 3.5 Silicondioxide (Atoxil, Polysorb, Siliks)
    • 3.6 Polyphepan
  • 4 antiperistaltic drug
    s (which suppress intestinal motility)
    • 4.1 loperamide (Imodium, Lopedium, Stoperan)
    • 4.2 Usara
    • 4.3 Loflatil
  • 5 microbial drugs or probiotiiki
  • 6 Racecadotril (Gidrasek)
    • 6.1 Homeopathic remedies

Depending on the operating principle, the drugs useddiarrhea, divided into several large groups.It:

If diarrhea is infectious nature (caused by Salmonella, Campylobacter, Shigella and Vibrio cholerae), apply the following classes of drugs:

In the case of fungal etiology are used antifungal drugs: nystatin, natamycin.

Typically, when using infectious diarrhea drugs, active substances which are ciprofloxacin and ofloxacin.

Ciprofloxacin

Antidiarrheal drugs for adults. has bactericidal action by interfering with the synthesis of microbial DNA, which prevents the growth and division of microorganisms.

rapidly and almost completely absorbed in the gastrointestinal tract.Maximum concentration in the blood is determined 60-120 minutes after administration, the half-life is 4 hours.Well distributed in many tissues of the body, crosses the placenta, into the cerebrospinal fluid passes into breast milk.Excreted in the urine and bile.

To treat diarrhea tablettirovannye used form of preparation: Flaproks, tsiprinol, Tsiprovin, Tsiprol, TSifran, Ifitsipro (there is also a form of infusion), Medotsiprin.

Standard dosage for adults is 250-500 mg, and in some, especially heavy cases - 750 mg twice a day, plenty of drinking water.The average duration of treatment varies between 5-15 days.

ciprofloxacin is contraindicated in case of hypersensitivity to it, in the event of severe violations of the liver and kidneys, during pregnancy and lactation.

tolerated, usually good.Rarely observed side effects such as headache, dizziness, fatigue, nervous state of overstimulation, tremor.Very rarely there are sensory disturbances, hot flashes, gait disturbance, depression, anxiety, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, digestive disorders, allergic reactions, changes in blood count (haemolytic anemia, decrease in red blood cells, hemoglobin, increased - eosinophils, liver function tests, alkaline phosphatase, bilirubin).

should be used with caution in patients suffering from diseases of the central nervous system and severe cerebral atherosclerosis.

In the case of hepatic or renal insufficiency is necessary to adjust (reduce) the dosage depending on the degree of dysfunction of these organs.

Ofloxacin

Antidiarrheal drugs for adults. Its mechanism of action is similar to that of ciprofloxacin.

have an impact on many types of bacteria.

bioavailability of the drug after oral administration is more than 96%.The half-life is 5-8 hours.In the case of simultaneous administration of the drug with the ingestion of its absorption slows down somewhat.Excreted mainly by the kidneys.

in tablet form are known on the basis of the following drugs ofloxacin: Zofloks, Zanotsin, Ofloksin, Floksan, tarivid.

as a solution for infusion is available Oflo, Ofloksin.

average therapeutic dose of the drug is 200-400 mg per day in 1 or 2 divided doses;it is recommended to take it abundantly with water.The treatment usually is 7-10 days.

ofloxacin is contraindicated in children under the age of 16, during pregnancy and lactation in case of individual intolerance of components.

While taking this drug may develop adverse reactions, such as nausea, vomiting, stool disorders, insomnia, headache and dizziness, photophobia, allergic reactions, elevated liver function tests and serum creatinine.

Precautions are used to treat people with organic disorders of the central nervous system and cerebral atherosclerosis.

Antidiarrheal drugs for adults. most famous member of this group of drugs is ftalilsulfatiazol , or Ftalazol.

exerted on pathogenic intestinal flora bacteriostatic action due to a violation of the synthesis of growth factors in them - dihydrofolic and folic acids.

When ingestion absorbed in the gastrointestinal tract slowly.Maximum drug concentration observed in the intestines.

issued in the form of tablets of 500 mg.

dosage depends on the pathogen and the severity of the disease and varies from 1-2 g to 6 g per day in divided doses.Treatment is carried out under the scheme, courses.

ftalazol contraindicated in case of hypersensitivity to the active substance in acute hepatitis, diseases of the circulatory system, Graves' disease.

Side effects are very rare and occur in the form of allergic reactions, group B vitamin deficiencies (due to inhibition of intestinal microflora), aplastic anemia, agranulocytosis.
use caution in patients with impaired renal function.

Antidiarrheal drugs for adults. These drugs have antimicrobial action, without disturbing the balance of the intestinal microflora, that is, they do not lead to dysbacteriosis.The major intestinal antiseptics are listed below.

1. nifuroxazide (trade names Lekor, nifuroxazide, Enterofuril, Ertsefuril).The mechanism of the antimicrobial action of the drug due to inhibition of enzyme activity of bacteria, entailing violation of the synthesis of protein in them.

After ingestion in the upper gastrointestinal tract is not absorbed but reaches the intestine, where a high concentration.Excreted in the feces.There is no occurrence of resistant forms of bacteria to it.

recommended to take 200 mg every 6 hours i.e. 4 times per day.
contraindicated in case of individual intolerance of 5-nitrofuran.
Side effects are rare.In some cases, possible allergic reactions to the drug.

2. Intetriks. intestinal antiseptic, has a devastating effect on the protozoa, in particular, the amoebae.Effective and against bacteria such as Staphylococcus, Salmonella, E. coli, and others.It also has antifungal activity, particularly against Candida.

Antidiarrheal drugs for adults. poorly absorbed mucosa of the stomach, creating a high concentration directly into the intestine, where it carried out its action.

Available in capsule form.It is recommended to take 2 capsules 2 times a day for 10 days maximum.

Intetriks contraindicated in case of individual hypersensitivity to the drug.Occasionally
while taking this drug is determined by the increase in liver function tests, hepatitis or develop allergic reactions occur.Prolonged treatment may reduce the development of vision, or peripheral neuropathy.

during pregnancy and lactation is not recommended to take the drug, since there are no reliable data on its safety to the fetus.

From this group of drugs for the treatment of diarrhea Candida nature of the nystatin and natamycin.

Nystatin

Antidiarrheal drugs for adults. absorbed in the digestive tract badly.Return with faeces.Low toxicity.
to treat diarrhea fungal origin is used in the form of tablets or rectal suppositories ("the people" - candles).

recommended to take 500 thousand. ED medication 3-4 times a day, or 250 thousand. IU 6-8 times a day.In severe cases, the daily dose was increased to 4-6 million. ED.

Rectal appoint 250-500 thousand. IU twice a day.

treatment duration, usually not exceeding 14 days.

contraindicated in case of individual intolerance Nystatin.

While taking the drug may develop side effects such as chills, fever, nausea, vomiting, frustration of a chair, but they are rare.

Natamycin (Pimafucin)

Antidiarrheal drugs for adults. Affects fungus fungicide: linking certain substances violates the integrity of the cell membrane of the fungus, and he dies.

To treat diarrhea fungal origin is used in the form of tablets, operating exclusively in the intestine.

recommended dose with leaves 1 tablet (100 mg) after 6 hours, i.e. 4 times a day.The duration of treatment typically is 7 days.Natamycin is contraindicated in case of hypersensitivity of the patient to it, which is extremely rare.

Against the background of the drug sometimes develop side effects such as nausea, upset his chair and allergic reactions.

drug should not be used on persons suffering from porphyria, since it may trigger an attack of the disease.

Contains lactose and sucrose: should not be taken to persons suffering from intolerance to galactose and diabetes.

During pregnancy and lactation the drug is not contraindicated.

These drugs have the ability to connect to itself toxic substances and remove them from the body.Long-term use of drugs of this group - more than 20 consecutive days, could lead to hypovitaminosis and malabsorption of calcium and other minerals, and therefore in such cases they recommended preventive reception.

have a high surface activity of drug that can absorb all kinds of substances - gases, various chemical compounds, endo- and exotoxins microorganisms.Non-toxic.Excreted unchanged in the faeces.

Antidiarrheal drugs for adults. issued in the form of tablets, the recommended dose is equal to 1-2 g 2-4 times a day.Take the pill should be between meals and other medications, drinking plenty of water.It can be ground and the desired number of tablets to dissolve them in 100 ml of water and then drink the resulting slurry.
activated charcoal is contraindicated in gastric ulcer or duodenal ulcer, ulcerative colitis and other digestive tract ulcerative lesions, and in the case of gastrointestinal bleeding.

While taking this drug can develop constipation or, on the contrary, there is frustration of a chair.
persons receiving activated charcoal, you should know that the treatment with this drug cal changes color: black becomes.

Coal enterosorbent with increased adsorption capacity.Actively connects all kinds of toxic substances and removes them from the body as part of the intestinal contents.Furthermore, it increases blood flow and stimulates intestinal motility.

Antidiarrheal drugs for adults. issued in the form of capsules 250 mg.It is recommended to take 2-4 capsules inside, plenty of drinking water, 2 hours after or 1 hour before meals and other medications.The duration of treatment depends on the severity of the disease and varies from 3 to 15 days.

contraindicated Sorbeks with individual hypersensitivity of the patient to the substance, in the case of gastrointestinal bleeding or exacerbation of ulcerative diseases of the digestive tract.

Sorbeksa Side effects are similar to those of activated carbon.It - diarrhea or constipation in the case of prolonged use of the drug.

women using contraception in order to oral contraceptives during treatment Sorbeksom should move on to another type of contraception.

during pregnancy and lactation is not contraindicated.

Antidiarrheal drugs for adults. effective enterosorbent excretes various viruses, bacteria and their endo- and exotoxins, bile salts and intestinal gases.Furthermore, it envelops the mucosa of the gastrointestinal tract, preventing loss of mineral substances and liquids.It protects the mucous membrane from the negative effects of pathogens.

Product: powder dosed in sachets.

recommended to take 1 sachet (that is 3 grams of active ingredient), pre-diluted in 100 ml of water, 3 times a day.In the case of acute diarrhea, the dose can be increased by 2 times.The duration of the treatment - up to 1 week.

diosmectite contraindicated during bowel obstruction, as well as in the case of individual hypersensitivity to the active substance.

Side effects are rare and presents constipation.

Approved for use by pregnant women and nursing mothers.

Antidiarrheal drugs for adults. addition to the adsorption capacity, improves bowel, kidney and liver, has enveloping effect on the mucous membrane of the digestive tract than protects it against all possible irritants.Enhances immunity.

recommended for adults to take 1 tablespoon of the drug (it is 15 grams) inside three times a day, drinking plenty of water.Take between meals.The course of treatment is on average 1-2 weeks.

contraindicated Enterosgel at acute intestinal obstruction.

While taking the drug can constipation.

Has expressed absorbent action.Furthermore, when applied topically promotes rejection of necrotic tissue, it accelerates the healing, preventing the progression of necrosis.
Available in powder form for suspension.

Antidiarrheal drugs for adults. for diarrhea recommended doses range from the severity of the disease and range from 2-3 to 4-6 g, 3 times a day.Take the drug should be 1 hour before or 2 hours after a meal.
the drug is contraindicated in case of aggravation of gastric ulcer and duodenal ulcer.

The treatment may cause nausea, vomiting, discomfort in the stomach area.

prohibited undiluted powder inside.

During pregnancy and lactation reception of silicon dioxide is not recommended.

Antidiarrheal drugs for adults. As sorbents, listed above, has a very high sorption activity by binding to and eliminated from the body all sorts of toxic substances.Non-toxic.Completely eliminated from the body per day.
release form - powder for suspension.The daily dose varies depending on the severity of the disease and is determined individually based 0.5-1 g / kg body weight of the patient: this is approximately 1 tbsp.l.3-4 times per day.The duration of treatment is 3-14 days.

Side effects should be noted occasionally experience an allergic reaction, as well as constipation.

group of drugs that have an impact on a link in the pathogenesis of diarrhea as enhanced peristalsis (wavelike motion) of the intestine.

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