Rabies - an acute infectious (viral) disease in humans and animals, characterized by lesions of the brain substance: the infection develops inflammation (encephalitis).
Despite the fact that rabies is one of the oldest infections tendency to reduce it to the present time there is no way to be developed and effective for the treatment.Rabies is a deadly disease.
specific symptoms, but between infection and the first manifestations of the disease may take quite a long time.This article will tell you about the treatment and prevention of rabies in humans, it is very important to know how to protect themselves and their children from dangerous diseases. Content
widespread rabies among many species of warm-blooded animals poses a risk of infection for people, including children.The most common infection occurs from cats and dogs, but it is possible to get the disease, and by the w
source of infection - sick animals.Ill rabies and wild animals (foxes, wolves, bats), and domestic (cats, horses, dogs, pigs, cattle) and rodents (rats).In this connection distinguish urban and forest species rabies.
are registered as rare cases of infection with the virus from an infected person.
person gets the virus bites a sick animal or or licks on the skin and mucous membranes.At present, it proved the possibility of infection by airborne droplets.
This way people can become infected by inhaling the air in the caves with a lot of bats.The rabies virus can be obtained through food (in the use of meat).We can not exclude the path of infection through contact things that got the saliva of a sick animal.
most susceptible children 5-7 years old to 14-15 (mostly boys) in this age, children fearlessly contact with animals tend to such contact, including homeless cats and dogs.
at high occupational risk of infection are hunters, foresters, employees of veterinary services, workers on catching stray animals.They can infect and from dead animals.Often recorded cases of infection through any microtrauma hands when removing the skins, cutting the carcass of a sick animal.
marked seasonality of the disease: from May to September.During this period, people (including children) spend on the street most of the time, than in winter.Most suffer from the villagers, as they have more opportunity to contact with different animals.
natural foci of rabies are everywhere!Rabid wild animals often run into the nearest towns, where they can attack people.
contagious animals are already 10 days before the onset of their symptoms of rabies, but the greatest risk of infection occurs during the manifestations of the disease.
Not every bite of an infected animal rabies ends.Approximately 30% of patients with dog bites and about 45% of wolf attacks are infectious to humans.The danger of infection above the bites on the face and scalp, neck, crotch, fingers, upper and lower extremities.Very dangerous and deep lacerations.
Infection can occur even in cases where the bite itself is not, there is a scratch-trace of the teeth or just or licks on the skin and mucous membranes.The virus enters the body through the skin and mucous membranes.
incubation period for rabies lasting from 1 to 6 months.With extensive wounds and massive infection, the incubation period may be reduced to 9 days.Bites the face, head and neck shorter latent period, with bites of the lower extremities - longer.There are cases of rabies in a year or more after pokusaniya.
The clinic rabies disease distinguish 3 periods:
In prodromal period disease appear aching pain or licks or bites, even if the wound has healed.There may be redness of the scar, itching and burning.
The child raises the temperature within 38 ° C, worried about the headache, nausea and vomiting may occur.The child refuses to eat, he had disturbed sleep (insomnia appears).If the baby is still asleep, he sees the frightening dreams.
child during this period is closed, indifferent to what is happening, the mood is depressed, anxious.Expression wistful.Teen worries unfounded anxiety, heaviness in the chest, accompanied by increased heart rate and breathing.
duration of prodromal period of 2-3 days (can be extended up to 7 days).In a subsequent mental health problems worse, depression and anxiety are replaced by indifference.
In period excitation appears the most characteristic symptom of rabies: rabies (hydrophobia or).When you try to patient swallow any liquid, even saliva, there is muscle spasm of the larynx and pharynx.
type and even the sound of running water, and even talk about the water, causing the appearance of fear and the development of such a spasm.If you try to drink a cup of the patient, he pushes, bends, throws her head back.
patient's face turns blue when it expresses fear: a few bulging eyes, the pupil expanded gaze directed at a some point, difficult breath, sweating increases.Attacks of spasmodic contraction of the muscles, though short-lived (lasting a few seconds), but they are often repeated.
attack can provoke not only the appearance of the liquid, and a jet of air or a loud knocking sound, a bright light.Therefore, the patient develops not only rabies (hydrophobia), but also aerophobia, phonophobia, photophobia.
addition to increased perspiration, copious notes and saliva.There is agitation and aggression and rage.Patients can bite, they spit, can hit, break clothes for yourself.
It is improper violent and aggressive behavior meant when people say, "behaving like a madman."
During the attack marked confusion, appear frightening visual and auditory hallucinations.Between bouts of consciousness can become clear.
vomiting, sweating and drooling, inability to fluid intake leads to dehydration (especially pronounced it in children), and weight loss.The temperature can be increased.
excitation period lasts 2 or 3 days, at least 5 days.At the height of any of the attacks may occur stop breathing and heart activity, that is death.
In rare cases, the patient can live up to the third stage of the disease - period of paralysis. Seizures and convulsions stopped at this stage, the patient can have a drink and swallow food.Disappears rabies.Consciousness in this period is clear.
But this alleged improvement.Body temperature rises above 40 ° C.Pulse is speeded up, the blood pressure is progressively reduced.The excitement gives way to apathy.Growing depression and apathy.
then disrupted the function of the pelvic organs, develop paralysis of the limbs and cranial nerves.Lethal outcome comes as a result of paralysis of the respiratory centers and cardiac activity.
addition to the typical form, there is also the atypical form rabies.In this form there is a clear manifestation of the disease period;seizures rabies and the period of excitation can not develop.Clinical manifestations of the disease are reduced to a depressed, drowsy with the subsequent development of paralysis.
Rabies in child in early has some distinctive features:
In children older than 2-3 years of clinical manifestations of rabies are the same as in adults.
diagnosis of "disease" made clinically.Even in highly developed countries it is difficult to confirm the diagnosis in vivo.As a rule, it is confirmed after the death of the patient.
reference for clinical diagnosis symptoms are:
Due to lack of intravital laboratory diagnosis of atypical forms of the disease in the absence of arousal and hydrophobia little diagnosed.Rabies diagnosis is particularly difficult in children becauseestablish the fact of the child's contact with a sick animal is not always possible.
In 2008, French scientists were able to develop and offer to study in vivo diagnosis of skin biopsy of the neck area (on the border with hair growth) by ELISA.
method is highly specific (98%) and highly sensitive (100%) from the first day of the disease.Research reveals antigen in the nerve endings near the hair follicle.
When the possibility of a fluorescent antibody technique to detect investigate antigen prints cornea.
In the analysis of peripheral blood detected increase in the number of white blood cells, hemoglobin level, red blood cell count, increased hematocrit.
When deciding on the need for immunization requires diagnosis of rabies in an animal that has caused the bite.This research is carried out at the earliest possible after the bite of the patient (if the body of the animal is available for sampling of biological tissues).In this case it is possible to detect the virus in cells of the brain and the eye cornea or sections of the skin of animals via serological and fluorescent antibody method.
Treatment of the patient with rabies is carried out only in a hospital.The conditions of the patient should exclude exposure to bright light (the House with tinted windows), loud noise stimuli and air flow.
Effective therapy of rabies has not been developed.Weak therapeutic effect have rabies immunoglobulin, rabies serum and large doses of interferon.
unfavorable outcome of the disease, patients die.Described isolated cases worldwide recovery children.
in our country is carried out specific and nonspecific prevention of rabies.
Nonspecific prevention provides for such measures:
Specific prevention carried out by the combined administration of a course of rabies vaccine and rabies immunoglobulin after the bite or animals or licks.After a bite wound treatment should be carried out and consult a physician-surgeon.
debridement is performed as follows:
The first two treatment should be carried out at home before visiting a doctor;other wires surgeon.
Given the devastating effects of the virus on the heat in the field can use the old method of treatment of wounds after being bitten by an animal: cauterization of wounds from the bite of a hot iron.
to destroy the virus can be put into the wound crystal of potassium permanganate, or carbolic acid.
If pokusaniya pet doctor clarifies under what circumstances to get a bite, whether it was provoked by the behavior of the patient, whether vaccinated against rabies and where is the animal.If bitten by an animal health (there is a certificate of grafting), the vaccination is not carried out.
If the animal is gone after applying the bite, or if the patient pokusaniya wild animal vaccination rabies vaccine and rabies immunoglobulin.
vaccination scheme selected patient (especially a child), the doctor individually: depending on the depth and location of the bite, bite ago, from what animal caused the bite and there is a possibility to watch him.
If, after the 10-day observation of a pet that has caused human bite, it remains healthy, then the vaccine has canceled after 3 received injections (if occurred or licks or shallow single bite).
But if the bite was inflicted in the dangerous places (listed above), as well as the absence of opportunities to observe or inspect the animal administered the vaccine continue until the end of the designated scheme.
immediately recommended to start combination therapy (administered rabies immunoglobulin and rabies vaccine) at:
rabies vaccine is injected intramuscularly in the shoulder, and children up to 5 years - in the upper third of the anterolateral area of the thigh.The vaccine should not be administered buttocks.The vaccine has a preventive effect, even in the case of multiple severe bites.
persons from the group of occupational risk of infection is carried out primary prevention of rabies vaccine.Recommended prophylactic administration of the vaccine and young children, given that they can not talk about contact with animals held.
preliminary prevention can be carried out and the children when planning a vacation in the countryside or in the wellness summer camp.
The vaccine is injected intramuscularly to 1 ml of 3-fold: after 7 and 28 days after the first injection.Persons at risk of infection revaccination every 3 years.Adults and children after vaccination is necessary to exclude overheating, to avoid overwork.In carrying out vaccinations and for six months after it is strictly necessary to eliminate the use of all types and doses of alcohol.Otherwise, you may experience complications of the central nervous system.
Considering that rabies is almost impossible to cure, it is necessary to take all measures to prevent contamination of the child.It is the children from an early age to explain the danger of contact with stray cats and dogs.Young children should not be left unattended, to prevent the attack and animal bites.
In the case of an animal attack on a child (or a bite or licks) immediately and properly handle the wound and be sure to see a doctor, regardless of the depth of damage.In appointing the course of vaccination your doctor should be scrupulously his conduct to the end of the proposed scheme.The only way to protect the child from such dangerous diseases as rabies.
Subject rabies once rose on the First Channel: