August
12
19:53
Infectious diseases

Antibacterials when urethritis

bladder inflammation (cystitis) and the urethra (urethritis) is usually infectious nature.Therefore, the treatment of these diseases mainly used antimicrobial therapy.For a more rapid achievement of the effect of the treatment should begin immediately after diagnosis, so antibiotic therapy is prescribed empirically use drugs that affect the largest possible number of microorganisms - potential pathogens of cystitis and urethritis.

For treatment of urethritis (and cystitis) can be used in the following groups of products:

Let us consider each of these groups and their representatives.

Content

  • 1 Fluoroquinolones second generation
    • 1.1 enoxacin (Enoksor)
    • 1.2 Ofloxacin (Ofloxacin, Oflo, Zofloks-400 Zanotsin and others)
    • 1.3 lomefloksatsin (Lomadey)
    • 1.4 norfloxacin (norfloxacin, nolitsin, Norbaktin)
    • 1.5 Ciprofloxacin (Flaproks, tsiprinol, Tsiprobel, Tsiprolet, Tsiprovin, TSifran, Ifitsipro, Medotsiprin, Tsiprobay, Tsipronat, Tsiteral, TSifran)
  • 2 Β-lactam antibiotics
    • 2.1 Ingibitorozaschischennymi penicillins applicable in cystitis and urethritis are:
  • 3 third generation cephalosporins
    • 3.1 cefixime (Cefixime, Ikzyme, Tseforal soljutab, Lopraks, Sortsef, fixes, Flamifiks)
    • 3.2 ceftibuten (Tsedeks)
  • 4 Uroantiseptiki
    • 4.1 Furazidin (Furamag, Furagin)
    • 4.2 nitrofurantoin (furadonin)
    • 4.3 Trimethoprim / sulfamethoxazole(co-trimoxazole, Biseptolum, Bactrim, Triseptol, Sumetrolim)
    • 4.4 pipemidic acid (Palin, Pipemidin, Urosept)
    • 4.5 Nitroxoline (5 NOC)
    • 4.6 Kanefron
    • 4.7 Urolesan
  • 5 imidazole derivatives
    • 5.1 Metronidazole (Trichopolum, Flagin, Efloran)
    • 5.2 Ornidazole (Orgil, Ornidzhil, Meratin, Ornigil, Tiberal)

Medicines givenGroups are first-line drugs for the treatment of urinary tract infections.Exerts a bactericidal effect on the bacteria that is causing the death of microorganisms.

Antibacterials urethritis and cystitis drug is well absorbed in the gastrointestinal tract.Food intake did not significantly affect their bioavailability, but somewhat slows absorption.Maximum concentration in blood after oral observed after 1-3 hours.Cross the placental barrier and into breast milk (but to a lesser extent).Write mainly with urine and to a lesser extent - in the bile.
In acute cystitis the duration of the drug is 3 days, at relapse - 5-7 days.
most commonly used drugs such as:

has high activity against the following microorganisms:

Insensitive to him streptococcus, chlamydia and anaerobic gram-negative bacteria.
With infections of the urinary tract is recommended to take 200 mg 2 times a day.The course of treatment is 3-5-7 days in complicated cases - up to two weeks.When receiving
enoxacin may develop the following side effects:

contraindicated to take the drug for the individual sensitivity to its components, epilepsy, lack of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, as well as children under the age of 15 years.

During pregnancy and lactation are used under strict indications.In severe renal impairment (if creatinine clearance less than 30 ml / min), the drug should not be accepted.

Antibacterials urethritis and cystitis issued in the form of tablets and the usual long-acting capsules, solutions for infusion and injection, ear and eye drops, ophthalmic ointment.In the treatment of urinary tract infections is usually applied in the form of tablets and capsules.

spectrum of action of this drug involves many types of bacteria: Staphylococcus, Listeria, E. coli, Klebsiella, Salmonella, Rroteus, Shigella, Yersinia, Enterobacter, Morganella morganii, Providencia spp., Vibrio spp., Serratia spp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Neisseriagonorrhoeae, N. meningitidis, Haemophilus influenzae, Acinetobacter spp., Moraxella catarrhalis, Gardnerella vaginalis, Pasteurella multocida, Helicobacter pylori, Chlamydia trachomatis, and others.

ofloxacin bioavailability after oral administration is 96%.Maximum concentration in the blood observed after 1-2 hours.The half-life is 5-8 hours.Excreted by the kidneys unchanged.
indicated for a variety of different infections, including cystitis and urethritis.

oral dose is 200-400 mg a day (if the 400 is better in 2 hours, but you can in one - in the morning).
contraindications to ofloxacin are hypersensitivity to the drug, age less than 16 years, pregnancy, lactation, severe renal impairment.
Against the background of the drug may cause the following adverse effects:

use caution when cerebral arteriosclerosis, epilepsy.During treatment should avoid prolonged stay under direct ultraviolet rays, drink plenty of fluids.

Antibacterials urethritis and cystitis release form for the treatment of urinary tract infections - coated tablets.
has bactericidal effect on many bacteria, particularly E. coli, Enterobacter, tsitrobakter, Klebsiella, Staphylococcus and Streptococcus, gonorrhea Neisseriya.

absorbed into the bloodstream rapidly and almost completely - up to 98%.Excreted in the urine.

Applied tablets into 400 g once daily.

contraindicated in case of hypersensitivity to lomefloxacin.

Side effects are rare.There may be headache, dizziness, pain in the stomach, stool disorders, photosensitivity.

dose adjustment is necessary when using existing renal impairment.

Antibacterials urethritis and cystitis release form - coated tablets and capsules.

active against a plurality of microorganisms.The most sensitive to it Escherichia coli, Klebsiella, Enterobacter, Proteus, tsitrobakter, Serrat Atsinetobakter.Insensitive - anaerobic bacteria and enterococci.

In acute cystitis and urethritis applied 400 mg 2 times a day for 3-5 days.In chronic urinary tract infections recommended duration of reception increases significantly.
contraindications, side effects and special instructions are similar to those of other second-generation fluoroquinolones.

For treatment of cystitis and urethritis used in the form of ordinary tablets, coated tablets, prolonged action and capsules.

most pronounced antimicrobial action against Pseudomonas aeruginoza, Haemophilus influenzae, Escherichia coli, Shigella, Salmonella, Neisseria gonorrhea and maningitis as well as staphylococci, enterococci, Legionella, Mycoplasma and Chlamydia.Insensitive to him some species of streptococci, Ureaplasma urealitikum, pectoris Treponema pallidum and asteroides (pale treponema).

is absorbed in the digestive tract quickly - bioavailability is 70%.The maximum concentration in the blood was 1-2 hours after a single dose.The half-life is 4 hours.Excreted in the urine and bile.

Antibacterials urethritis and cystitis With infections of the urinary tract is recommended to take 250-500 mg twice a day, morning and evening, drinking plenty of fluids.Duration of treatment - 3-14 days.

take ciprofloxacin is contraindicated during pregnancy and lactation in case of individual hypersensitivity to it, as well as a pronounced deficiency of the liver and kidneys.

Typically, the drug is well tolerated.However, in some cases may include the following undesirable effects:

wary appoint persons with organic diseases of the central nervous system, suffering from epilepsy.Treatment should be under the control of liver and kidney samples.

drugs belonging to this group, a lot.According to the structure and mechanism of action they are also divided into groups, of which in the treatment of cystitis and urethritis apply aminopenicillins protected and cephalosporins third (just the third rather than the first and second) generation.

aminopenicillin as well as fluoroquinolones, have a bactericidal effect on microorganisms.They are especially active against streptococci and stafillokokk, most enterococci (except for E. faecium), Listeria, erizipelotriksa, Corynebacterium, Neisseria, Escherichia coli, Shigella, Salmonella, Haemophilus influenzae, Klebsiella, and other moraksell.Most anaerobic bacteria to secure aminopenicillins insensitive.

rapidly absorbed when taken orally.Bioavailability of drugs in most high - 75%, increased under the influence of food.

Small amounts cross the placenta and breast milk.The blood-brain, blood-barrier penetrate poorly.Excreted from the body mainly by the kidneys.
are used in many diseases, in particular, in community-acquired urinary tract infections.
The treatment protected aminopenicillins, the following adverse reactions:

If developed as a result receiving protected aminopenicillins allergies, such reactions are possible on all drugs penicillin group, so in case of doubt, before prescribing these drugs should conduct a skin test.

during pregnancy and breastfeeding protected aminopenicillins approved for use.But we should not take them without reading, and lactation is necessary to consider the possibility of developing thrush, diarrhea and skin allergic reactions in the baby.

If the kidney function of the patient must adjust the dose of the drug.
At 3-4 in four patients suffering from infectious mononucleosis, is developing so-called "ampitsillinovaya rash."

cystitis and urethritis When protected aminopenicillins Inside, regardless of meals, drinking plenty of water.Skipping doses or take medication regularly is not recommended.

Preparations of this group are active against a variety of bacteria, in particular the effect on streptococci, E. coli, Proteus, Klebsiella, Haemophilus influenzae, Moraksellu katarralis, Entarobaktera separate species.Some representatives of the third generation cephalosporins influence and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.Staphylococci to drugs in this group usually are stable.

disrupt the structure of the bacterial cell wall, that is, they have a bactericidal effect.
oral forms cephalosporins are well absorbed in the digestive tract.Percent bioavailability depends on the drug and is 40-95%.The food, which is in the stomach during treatment slows its absorption.Once in the body, cephalosporins create high concentration in many organs and tissues, particularly in organs of the urinary system.Penetrate the blood-brain barrier.Write mainly with urine in unchanged form.The half-life is between 1 to 8.5 hours depending on the drug.

Upon receipt of third-generation cephalosporins may develop these side effects:

contraindications to the drugs in this group is the individual sensitivity to it, severe degree of renal insufficiency, bronchial asthma.

Where indicated cephalosporins may be used to treat pregnant women and young mothers, breastfeeding.

When available patient renal impairment, the dose should be adjusted according to the creatinine clearance.

drugs of third generation cephalosporins, is used to treat urinary tract infections are the two - cefixime and ceftibuten.

Antibacterials urethritis and cystitis If ingestion is well absorbed - bioavailability is 50%.The maximum concentration in blood is reached after 2.5-4.5 hours after a single dose.The half-life is 3.5 hours.Excreted in the bile and urine.

issued in the form of powder for suspension (this form of children), capsules and tablets, film-coated 400 mg dispersible tablets of 100 mg and 200 mg (this is also the dosage form for children).

recommended adult dose is generally 400 mg to receive 1 per day.The course of treatment - 3-5-7 days.

release form - capsules of 400 mg.

well absorbed when taken orally.The maximum drug concentration in the blood observed after 2-3 hours after a single dose of its administration.At the same time taking ceftibuten with fatty food slows the absorption of the drug.Excreted from the body mainly by the kidneys.

Antibacterials urethritis and cystitis recommended adult dosage - 1 tablet - 400 mg - once daily.Duration of treatment - 3-5-7 days.In renal failure with a creatinine clearance greater than 50 mL / min correction dose is not required.If creatinine clearance of 30-49 ml / min, Tsedeks should be administered at a dose of 200 mg per day.If creatinine clearance quite small - from 5 to 29 ml / min, the daily dose should not exceed 100 mg.

This group of drugs is not an antibiotic, but also has a devastating effect on microorganisms.

main drugs of this group, used today in treatment of cystitis and urethritis, are as follows:

Antibacterials urethritis and cystitis synthetic antimicrobial agent.Has bacteriostatic effect, ie, it stops the growth and reproduction of microorganisms cause disease.Resistance to it develops slowly.It acts on Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria.

release form of the drug for the treatment of cystitis and urethritis - capsules and tablets of 25 and 50 mg.Recommended dose - 100-200 mg after meals 2-3 times a day.Duration of treatment - 7-10 days.
drug is contraindicated in patients with severe renal dysfunction, hypersensitivity to the drug, as well as during pregnancy.

While taking furazidina may develop adverse reactions such as headache, dizziness, nausea, vomiting, and sometimes - peripheral neuritis.

synthetic antimicrobial agent, bacteriostatic and (rarely) bactericidal action on microorganisms.Nitrofurantoin is active against bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Corynebacterium, tsitrobakter, Klebsiella, Enterobacter, Neisseriya, Salmonella, Shigella, E. coli.

Antibacterials urethritis and cystitis in the digestive tract is well absorbed.At simultaneous reception with food accelerated absorption of the drug.It penetrates through the placenta and breast milk.The half-life of 20 minutes.Excreted in the bile and urine.

release form of the drug - tablets of 50 and 100 mg.Recommended dose - 50-100 mg 4 times per day.The course of treatment is about 10-14 days.

drug is contraindicated in patients with severe renal impairment (if creatinine clearance less than 40 ml / min), hypersensitivity to the drug, as well as during pregnancy and lactation.

While taking nitrofurantoin may develop these side effects:

With care prescribe the drug for persons suffering from diabetes, renal insufficiency, chronic diseases of the nervous system, a deficiency of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase.

Antibacterials urethritis and cystitis fixed combination of the two drugs in the ratio of 5: 1.Renders and bacteriostatic and bactericidal effect.Sensitive to many microorganisms.
When ingestion rapidly and almost completely absorbed in the stomach and duodenum.Cross the placental barrier and into breast milk.Write mainly kidneys.Adult
available as tablets of 80 mg + 400.Recommended dose - 1-2 tablets every 12 hours (i.e., 2 times a day).

contraindications to this drug are hypersensitivity to its components, severe renal dysfunction and liver, megaloblastic anemia, immune thrombocytopenia.

Co-trimoxazole is transferred, usually good.Excreted from the body mainly in the urine.

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