With the arrival of autumn cold snaps children more often suffer from the so-called colds.The doctor makes the diagnosis: acute respiratory viral infections.Moms wonder: it was recently SARS, and again it is the same?But the fact that there are many viruses that can cause this disease, that is, every time the "culprit" is a disease of some other virus.
One common childhood illnesses among SARS is adenovirus infection, which is characterized not only intoxication, fever, mucous respiratory tract and eyes, but also involvement of the lymphatic system. Content
disease can affect children at any age.Special weight of an infectious disease is different from little children (up to 3 years).
Increased incidence observed in the autumn and winter, when outbreaks may occur among children in a team.However, isolated cases are recorded throughout the year.
adenovirus infection is a DNA-containing adenovirus is stable in the environment:
Only by boiling and ultraviolet radiation can kill the virus.
source of infection is the patient (adult or child).Excrete the virus from the body of a patient with nasal secretions and faeces.The virus enters the air by sneezing, talking, coughing, deep breathing patient.
Isolation of the virus is noted for 3-4 weeks after infection.The first two weeks are more dangerous in terms of infection of others.
Way of transmission:
in children's collectives infection usually occurs by droplet infection: the virus is contained in the air, toys and books (from them may fall again into the air).
waterborne infection is possible when bathing children in the open water and swallowed water.With food poisoning occurs when non-compliance with child elementary rules of hygiene (eating with dirty hands).Infection is possible through the mouth and licks infected toys.
minimum incubation period - 1-2 days, and the maximum - 12 days, although the child in this period does not feel any symptoms of the disease, it poses a threat to other children, since the virus is already allocated.
In babies breastfed less risk of infection, as they protect the antibodies derived from the mother's milk.After a previous infection of the child is also produced by the immune system, but it is held only 5-8 years.
In addition, type-specific immunity: only protects against this type of adenovirus, which caused the disease.As of today there are about 50 types of the virus, and adenovirus infection can hurt a few times in my life.
The virus enters the body through the mucous membranes of the child's airway by inhalation of contaminated air through conjunctival mucous and digestive tract.The epithelial cells of the mucous membranes of the virus multiplies, and after a few hours, the cells die.The virus can multiply in lymph node cells.
Adenovirus infection may be mild, moderate and severe.
Disease begins acutely: the temperature rises to high numbers, there are signs of inflammation of the upper respiratory tract, such as sore throat, pain on swallowing, nasal congestion.Due to difficulty breathing child sleeps poorly, is having trouble eating.
appear moderately expressed symptoms of intoxication: decreased appetite, headache worries and weakness, the child becomes sluggish, capricious.At the height of fever may be convulsions, especially in children infants.
heavy discharge from the nose.Initially, they are transparent, and then becomes thick, green.The child is forced to breathe through the mouth, which causes dry mouth and the appearance of cracks on the lips.
When viewed from the throat marked redness and swelling of the tonsils, palatine arches and the posterior pharyngeal wall.In the tonsils visible white purulent raids in the form of points that can be easily removed with a cotton swab.In the throat, the back wall may drain mucus.
often appear abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting can be infrequent, bloating and diarrhea.The chair can be more frequent to 5 p.per day, but the pathological impurities (mucus, green, blood) in feces is not.Most such manifestations of adenovirus infection have been reported in children of early age.These symptoms may be a manifestation of inflammation in the mesenteric lymph nodes (located in the abdominal cavity).
From the first days of a child's illness worries dry hacking cough frequent.At the beginning of the disease the doctor can hear the dry wheezing.In the following days the cough gradually becomes wet, sputum stands.
characteristic of adenovirus infection is eye disease, which can be observed in different periods of the disease in varying degrees of severity.Most conjunctivitis seen since the early days of the disease, but may appear in 3-5 days.
Initially affects the mucous of the eye, but the next day, and the other eye is involved.Concerned about cutting in the eye, tearing, especially in bright light.On examination, visible swelling of the eyelids, redness of the conjunctiva expressed.Characteristically, and muco-purulent discharge from the eyes.This separates and causes the eyelashes sticking the child from sleep.
Even the appearance of a child with adenovirus infection is characterized by: a pale, somewhat puffy face with swollen eyelids and abundant purulent discharge from the eyes and nose.Typical for this disease is, and nodal involvement: they increase in size, but are painless and not soldered to surrounding tissues.
In severe infections may increase the liver and spleen.
Summarizing the diversity of clinical symptoms of adenovirus infection, allocate 2 main syndrome:
duration of the disease in children with uncomplicated for 1 week.In protracted course of the disease lasts up to 3 weeks.Moreover phenomena conjunctivitis typically extinguished earlier, and inflammation in the nasopharynx with nasal congestion observed for 3 weeks.
When non-smooth flow of infection can occur as complications of secondary bacterial flora and the development of bronchitis, pneumonia.In infants adenoviral infection often leads to inflammation of the middle ear (otitis).
tendency to generalization of the process is typical for children of early age.Since the virus is carried by the blood to different organs and therefore may occur their defeat.
At this age may develop viral pneumonia, which is sometimes called hemorrhagic.Because viruses vascular lesions in the lung tissue (alveolar) blood accumulates, hindering gas exchange in the lungs.Develops respiratory failure.The course of pneumonia characterized by severity and duration (1-2 months).
eighth type of virus infection often leads to the defeat of the cornea and cataract formation.
Pronounced abdominal lymph nodes may develop mezadenita picture that can provoke an inflammation of the appendix, and the need for surgery.
possible occurrence of exacerbations and adenovirus infection, when, after a significant improvement of the temperature rises again and increase the expression of other symptoms.In this case we speak of undulating course of the disease.
Given the characteristic typical manifestations of the disease, the diagnosis usually is made clinically.When atypical during adenovirus infection has to be differentiated from infectious mononucleosis.In these cases, use the methods of laboratory diagnostic: the detection of antibodies to adenovirus serum.
there and virologic method of diagnosis: detection of the virus in nasal washings with.But this method is long, the treatment can not help it.Shire method is used in the development of an outbreak to determine the type of virus.
In the clinical analysis of blood and urine specific changes there.Marked decrease in the total number of leukocytes and the increase in the number of lymphocytes, as for other viral infections.Slightly accelerated ESR.
Generally, treatment is carried out at home.Hospitalized children with severe forms of the infection or the development of complications.
no specific treatment.Antivirals also have a pronounced effect.Therefore, treatment is symptomatic:
good effect is given inhalation with saline or alkaline mineral water with Lazolvanom (especially convenient to carry inhalation via nebulizer).
liquefaction sputum contribute ACC, Bromhexine - but the choice of the drug should be required to make a doctor;in the wet cough may be used Mukaltin, "Dr. cough", "Ambroksol children" and others.
Prevention adenoviral infection did not differ from that in other acute respiratory viral infections, as specific protection in the form of vaccination does not exist.
Adenovirus infection - a widespread viral disease.Manifestations of infection varied.The disease may have a severe course, especially in young children.
During acute manifestations of the disease should be referred to a doctor and to comply with the recommendations.Do not self-medicate, so as not to harm the child.