April
20
23:02
Gynecology

Antiphospholipid syndrome: diagnosis and treatment

Antiphospholipid syndrome - a set of symptoms that includes multiple arterial and / or venous thrombosis, causing disorders in different organs, one of the most typical manifestation of which is the habitual miscarriage.This state is one of the most urgent problems of medicine today, as both affect many organs and systems, and its diagnosis is difficult in some cases.

In this article we try to figure out what kind of symptoms, why it arises, as shown, as well as consider the principles of diagnosis, treatment and prevention of this condition.

Content

  • 1 The causes and mechanisms of development of antiphospholipid syndrome
  • 2 Clinical signs of antiphospholipid syndrome
  • 3 Diagnosis of antiphospholipid syndrome
  • 4 Treatment of antiphospholipid syndrome
  • 5 Antiphospholipidsyndrome and pregnancy
  • 6 forecast

Unfortunately, to date, significant causes of this symptom is unknown.It is believed that the disease in some cases is genetically determined, such a variant called primary a

ntiphospholipid syndrome, and it is defined as an independent disease.More often, antiphospholipid syndrome does not develop by itself, and against the background of any other diseases or conditions, the main ones are:

It can also be the result of receiving a number of drugs: psychotropic drugs, oral hormonal contraceptives, hydralazine, procainamideand others.

in antiphospholipid syndrome in the patient a large amount of autoantibodies to phospholipids having several varieties located in the membranes of platelets and endothelial cells, as well as on nerve cells.

a healthy person, the frequency of detection of these antibodies is 1-12%, increasing with age.In diseases mentioned above, dramatically increases the production of antibodies to phospholipids, which leads to the development of antiphospholipid syndrome.

antibodies to phospholipids have a negative impact on certain structures of the human body, namely:

As a result of the above-described effects of the blood gets an increased ability to clot: in the vessels that supply blood to the different organs are formed clots, authorities experiencing hypoxia with the development of the corresponding symptoms.

of the skin may be determined by the following changes:

for vascular lesions of the limbs characterized by the following symptoms:

If the location of the thrombus in large vessels can be determined:

the part of the bone may include the following changes:

Manifestations antifisfolipidnogo syndrome byvisual organ can be:

All these conditions appear to some extent impaired, wearing a reversible or irreversible.

From the renal manifestations of antiphospholipid syndrome may include the following:

With the localization of blood clots in the vessels of the adrenal glands may develop acute or chronic adrenal insufficiency, as well as determined by hemorrhages and heart attacks in the area of ​​the affected organ.

defeat thrombi nervous system manifests itself usually following states:

With the defeat of thrombus heart vessels determined:

In the case of thrombosis of the liver may be its heart attacks, Budd-Chiari syndrome, nodular regenerative hyperplasia.

Very often when antiphospholipid syndrome is celebrated all sorts of obstetric pathology, but about it will be discussed below in a separate section of the article.

in 1992 were offered clinical and biological diagnostic criteria for antiphospholipid syndrome.Clinical criteria include:

to biological criteria include elevated levels of antibodies to phospholipids - IgG or IgM.

definite diagnosis "antiphospholipid syndrome" is considered if the patient has 2 or more clinical and biological criteria.In other cases, the diagnosis is possible or not certified.

In general, a blood test may reveal the following changes:

In the biochemical analysis of blood is found:

may also be carried out specific immunological blood tests that identify:

Antiphospholipid syndrome: diagnosis and treatment in the treatment of this disease can be used drugs of the following groups:

In combination with anticoagulant therapy in some cases plasmapheresis is used.

widely used in today is not received, but are quite promising in the treatment of antiphospholipid syndrome drugs of the following groups:

to prevent re-thrombosis using indirect anticoagulants (Warfarin).

In the case of a secondary nature of antiphospholipid syndrome treatment it is carried out against the background of adequate therapy of the underlying disease.

40% of women with recurrent cases of fetal death is precisely the reason for their antiphospholipid syndrome.Blood clots obstruct blood vessels of the placenta, fetus resulting lack of oxygen and nutrients, it slows down its development, and 95% of it soon dies.In addition, the disease could lead to the mother placental abruption, or to the development of an extremely dangerous condition for both the fetus and for the future mother - the late preeclampsia.

antiphospholipid syndrome Clinical manifestations of pregnancy are the same as outside this period.Ideally, the disease was detected in women before pregnancy: in this case, appropriate recommendations of doctors and executive women the probability of having a healthy baby is great.

First of all, pregnancy should be planned after the result of the treatment normalizes blood.

In order to control the state of the placenta and fetal circulation repeatedly during pregnancy a woman takes such a study, as ultrasonic Doppler.In addition, in order to prevent thrombus formation in blood vessels of the placenta and generally 3-4 times during pregnancy she prescribe a course of drugs that improve metabolism: vitamins, minerals, and antioxidants antihypoxants.

If antiphospholipid syndrome diagnosed after conception, a woman can be administered immunoglobulin or heparin in small doses.

prognosis of antiphospholipid syndrome is ambiguous and depends both on the timeliness and adequacy of the start of therapy, and the discipline of the patient, from the observance of all doctor's instructions.

of the following video you can learn what to do if you have a thick blood.