B12-deficiency anemia (pernicious anemia, Addison's disease-Biermer, pernicious anemia) refers to a group of megaloblastic anemia.The cause of this condition - a lack of vitamin B12 (cyanocobalamin), resulting in a broken process of hematopoiesis. Content
cyanocobalamin deficiency in the body can occur as a result of the influence of many endogenous and exogenous factors:
external clinical signs of this type of anemia can be a long time does not occur.Patients may complain of symptoms associated with many conditions and diseases, such as weakness, dizziness, tinnitus, fatigue, decreased exercise tolerance.
later appear symptoms of the digestive system.Patients developing stomatitis, glossitis.There is atrophy of tongue papillae, as a result of its surface is smoothed, it becomes shiny ("Patent"), it becomes bright red or crimson.This is one of the
Simultaneously, neurological symptoms appear, cyanocobalamin deficiency primarily affected the peripheral nervous system.Patients feel weakness and numbness in the extremities, "pins and needles", which may result in disturbed fine motor skills, become wobbly gait.With further increase of vitamin B12 deficiency disorders occur in the spinal cord and brain, may occur in patients with severe headaches, cramps in the limbs, impaired color perception, there may be hallucinations and delusions.
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Before treatment is necessary to identify the cause of vitamin B12 deficiency, as one of the conditions for successful treatment is to eliminate the factors that led to the development of anemia.In the presence of helminthic infestation is necessary to refer to infectious diseases and to conduct deworming.In cases where patients are structural changes in the digestive system, or diseases in which impaired absorption of nutrients, needed treatment at the gastroenterologist.
Treatment B12 deficiency anemia is performed using cyanocobalamin injection, the drug most commonly injected intramuscularly.Pathogenetic therapy begins only after examination and confirmation of the diagnosis, since even a single injection of vitamin A can affect the result of a blood test.
regimens hematologist chosen individually.If B12 deficiency anemia without any damage to the nervous system for the treatment of used doses up to 500 mcg cyanocobalamin, usually injections are performed every other day or every day for 7-10 days.In the presence of neurologic symptoms in a patient for treatment of higher doses of cyanocobalamin, the daily dose can be up to 1000 micrograms.Then the introduction of the drug continues to support a dose of 1 times a week for a month.When the need for further prevention of B12-deficiency anemia, the patient performs a vitamin injection once a month, the time of treatment determined by the doctor.
important role in the restoration of the body plays a diet, patients need a full diet, rich in vitamins, food excluded, irritating the mucous membrane of the digestive system, also need to give up alcohol completely.
Restoring normal levels of blood occurs within a few months, the condition of patients on background therapy rather quickly improved, but neurological symptoms can last up to six months.
development of pernicious anemia in healthy people is only possible when unbalanced diet or prolonged fasting, so the most effective preventive measure is a balanced diet, rich in vitamins and other nutrients.The main source of vitamin B12 - the food of animal origin:
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Recent studies show that plant foods cyanocobalamin is not contained in small amounts can be obtained from yeasts, yeastextract and fungi.Therefore, vegans for the prevention of pernicious anemia or courses are constantly recommended to take vitamin supplements.
People suffering from diseases that interfere with the absorption of vitamins is possible to assign a permanent prophylactic therapy once a month or less frequently performed parenteral administration of a maintenance dose of the vitamin.This will regularly replenish cyanocobalamin in the body and prevent the development of anemia.
Identification and treatment of patients diphyllobothriasis (view helminthiasis), and its prevention among workers of the fishing industry and people related to cooking, is also a means of preventing B12 deficiency anemia.
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