choice of drug for the treatment of allergies in children - not an easy task.The range of antiallergic drugs in pharmacies is extremely wide, many of them are sold over the counter, but not all are suitable for the treatment of allergies in children because of the serious side effects or because of insufficient knowledge of the impact of the drug on the child's body. Content
all allergy medications used to treat children can be divided into five main groups:
addition, produced a combination of drugs that combine multiple drugs.
Within each group, there is a huge amou
On the other hand, manufacturers of original drugs may unnecessarily inflate the price - and then the parents simply overpay for the brand.In either case, replace yourself one drug to another (even with the same composition) alone is highly undesirable, and if the prescribed treatment seems expensive to you, immediately tell your doctor so that he could pick up an effective counterpart.
All medicines for allergies can be classified as the preparations for systemic and topical use.
If you use local forms for application to the skin in newborns and infants should be aware that their skin is thinner and thus supplied with blood better than in adults and older children, and the drug can be absorbed and to systemic side effects.Due to the risk of adverse effects, even creams and gels in infants should be used with extreme caution, short courses, putting them on a thin layer of intact skin (no scratches, wounds and scratching).Prolonged use of any drugs, including local forms only possible after consultation with the health care professional.
include antihistamines are three generations.The division into generations based on the selectivity of action.First-generation, apart from the effect on histamine receptors, affect the other, involved in the allergic process cells and tissues.As a result, developed numerous unwanted side effects.
second-generation drugs selectively affect histamine receptors, so the number of side effects are minimal and they are weak.
Formulations of the third generation are the active ingredients of the drugs of the second generation are so fast and practically devoid of adverse effects.
first generation antihistamines for systemic use (suprastin tablets, and avil tavegil in syrup, fenistil drops for oral and others.) Appointed under any types of allergic reactions in children.They are used for the treatment of diathesis, atopic dermatitis and eczema, urticaria, allergic rhinitis, conjunctivitis, bronchitis.As a means of combined therapy of these drugs may be administered in bronchial asthma.For acute, severe allergic reactions (angioedema, laryngospasm allergic origin) used injection drugs.
Antihistamines are the first generation for an hour, their duration is about one day, but to preserve the therapeutic effect should be taken 2-3 times a day.All proceeds from this group can be addictive: long-term treatment of the sensitivity of the child's body to them is reduced, and the former dose not give the desired effect.
local forms of antihistamines first generation for application to the skin (Psili Balm, fenistil gel) appointed mostly in itching dermatoses - if you are allergic to insect bites, hives, itchy eczema, contact allergic reactions (in the washing powder, coarse or synthetic fabric clothesand etc.).However, they are ineffective and practically used in chronic skin allergies, in particular atopic dermatitis.In patients with moderate manifestations of exudative catarrhal diathesis (when a baby's rash on the cheeks associated with meals) in the early stages can also be recommended for these funds, but only in combination with diet.
Combined local media in the form of topical eye drops prescribed for allergic conjunctivitis and pollinozah with symptoms of conjunctivitis.They are well removed eyelid edema, redness, watery eyes and itchy eyes, and oftalmol additionally has an antimicrobial effect.
Side effects are most pronounced in the preparations for systemic use, but also local forms for application to the skin can produce systemic side effects, especially if used frequently, or in young children.
All first-generation antihistamines have the following side effects:
This sedative action and holinoliticheskoe pronounced hypnotic effect of all drugs, and almost always observed.
Due to the large number of unwanted side effects, means the first generation used at present is limited, in cases where treatment is contraindicated advanced antihistamines, acute allergic reactions and in some cases, when they are shown.
have Phencarolum fenistil and systemic side effects are expressed in the least degree.
Some drawbacks of first-generation drugs in certain cases, are used for medicinal purposes.So, sedative and hypnotic effect is quite acceptable and even desirable in allergic diseases involving excruciating pruritus (exacerbation of atopic dermatitis, etc.).Because of the pronounced itching disturbed sleep in children, and the drug is not only suppresses allergic reactions, but also calms the baby, allows him to sleep.
holinoliticheskogo (dry mucous membranes) claimed in allergic rhinitis with profuse discharge from the nose and allergic bronchitis with separation of liquid secretions (but not viscous!).
important feature of the first-generation drugs they have long been used in pediatric allergy, their action is studied, and most of them are found to be relatively safe (in the treatment prescribed by a doctor and recommended doses).Many of these can be assigned to infants, including birth.
Pediatricians and allergists in the appointment of the first-generation antihistamines to children under one year usually prefer fenistil (convenient dosage drops) or suprastin (large non-coated tablets, which are easy to separate and crush).
Because of severe systemic side effects and the development of addiction, these drugs are not suitable for long-term treatment.In connection with the effect of sleepiness and decreased ability to concentrate, this group of drugs is not desirable to use at school during the training period.
Allergic diseases.Local form (Allergodil) used for the treatment of allergic rhinitis and conjunctivitis.
systemic side effects (drowsiness, holinoliticheskoe effect, etc..) Are mild even in preparations for oral administration.Allergic reactions are possible.
In the absence of systemic side effects and addiction to drugs, they are recommended for long-term treatment of pollen allergy, seasonal allergic rhinitis and rhinoconjunctivitis, in the treatment of atopic dermatitis (subacute stage when abates itching) and bronchial asthma.You can use at school during the training period, since the drug does not reduce the concentration of attention.
Another plus drugs: they act for a long time, and achieve their therapeutic effect is enough to take 1 per day.
In pediatric practice most often used zirtek (oral drops) and Claritin (syrup).
drugs are relatively new, their effect on the child's body is poorly understood, so most of them are not allowed to infants (under 2 years), and one of the drugs can not be used to treat children up to six months.
allergic diseases in children.
virtually no systemic side effects.On any of the drugs possible allergic reactions.
fast and long-acting, almost completely devoid of undesirable side effects in the form of oppression of the nervous system and holinoliticheskogo.It is enough to take 1 per day.Suitable for long-term therapy and treatment of students in training.
From the third generation of drugs most commonly prescribed to children in the form of Aerius syrup.
Poor studied in pediatric patients.None of the drugs can not be used in infants (under one year).
Corticosteroids have the greatest anti-inflammatory activity.They are wonderful and very quickly relieve allergy symptoms, but are at the same time a number of disadvantages, chief among which is the development of an extremely serious systemic side effects.Side effects are most pronounced in preparations for oral and parenteral (intravenous, intramuscular) administration, so pills and hormone injections are used only for health:
In other situations, using local forms of glucocorticoids: creams, gels, eye drops, nasal sprays, inhalants, solutions for inhalation.But also local forms, especially for long term treatment, able to give systemic side effects.
Never use any gormonsoderzhaschie drugs for the treatment of allergies in children without a doctor's prescription!
development of Cushing's syndrome (obesity, stretch marks on the skin, increased blood pressure), thinning and dryness of the skin, increased intracranial pressure, headache, sleep disorders, growth retardation, muscle weakness, osteoporosis, decreased immunity, steroid ulcers, steroid diabetes.
Inhalers: budesonide (Pulmicort Turbuhaler®), fluticasone, beclomethasone, flunisolid.Used with 4 years old, when the child is able to control your breathing.
solutions and suspensions for inhalation via a nebulizer: budesonide (Pulmikort®).Available with six months.
nasal spray: budesonide (Tafen nazal®) - 6 years, mometasone (Nazoneks®) - 2 years.
Eye drops: dexamethasone, hydrocortisone.With infants.
Creams: hydrocortisone, methylprednisolone (advantan), hydrocortisone 17-butyrate (Lokoid®), mometasone (Elokom®).For use with infants, advantan - 4 months.
To prevent asthma attacks mild and moderate, as well as for the treatment of allergic rhinitis drugs used antileukotriene: montelukast (singular - chewable tablets, from 6 years) and zafirlukast (Akolat®).They act immediately, the symptoms of allergic diseases are not removed, but help prevent exacerbations.When seasonal rhinitis are assigned in advance, about 2-3 weeks before the expected start of flowering plants allergens.
These include sodium cromoglycate and nedocromil sodium.They are produced mainly in the forms for topical application (inhalers, nasal sprays, eye drops), but there are in the form of capsules (Nalkrom).Local forms are used for basic treatment (ie for prevention of exacerbations, but not to relieve symptoms) with allergic rhinitis, bronchitis, asthma and conjunctivitis mild to moderate severity.The capsules used in food allergies.
Preparations sodium cromoglycate:
Preparations nedocromil sodium:
Combination drugs (cromolyn and beta-2-agonists):
Combination drugs used in the treatment of asthma, both in basic therapy and forcupping of an attack.
At the beginning of the use of local forms of anti-inflammatory drugs are often marked irritation reactions at the injection site: watery eyes, a feeling of dryness in the nose, unpleasant taste in your mouth, cough and sore throat.In the future, these reactions usually take place and do not require discontinuation of therapy.Rarely can develop stomatitis, gingivitis, ulceration of the nasal mucosa, dyspnea and other symptoms requiring discontinuation of the drug.Allergic reactions are possible.
Note: isolated preparations cromoglycate and nedocromil sodium (ie, containing only one active ingredient) are not suitable for acute asthma!
Ruzam® - drug with immunomodulating activity for subcutaneous administration.It is derived from a thermophilic culture of Staphylococcus aureus (but preparation contains live bacteria).Anti-inflammatory effect, reduces swelling of the skin and mucous membranes.
Indications: treatment of allergic diseases (hay fever, rhinitis, asthma, atopic dermatitis and other allergic dermatitis) in children 4 years of age.
Side effects: fever up to 37,2-38 ° C, weakness, sweating, exacerbation of chronic infections, a temporary increase of allergic cough or runny nose.These symptoms usually pass quickly and do not require discontinuation of therapy.
Note: during allergy season the drug is administered in advance (1,5-2 months before flowering plants-allergens).Appointed after a preliminary examination of a child at the allergist, confirm the diagnosis and establish the cause of allergens.
Despite the fact that almost all parents have at least sometimes encountered manifestations of allergies in children, to pick up the child the drug alone or on the advice of a pharmacist can not.Self dangerous, not only because of the risk of incorrect selection or dose of side effects.Without medical examination allergies can be confused with other diseases associated with similar symptoms and, therefore, to leave the child without the necessary treatment.Yes, and the dosage of the drug depends on a combination of different factors: the type of allergy and the severity of the allergic process, the child's age and weight of his body, the presence of co-morbidities and therapy other drugs, etc.
Therefore, in cases of suspected allergic child is required to show a pediatrician for further diagnosis, the appointment of a suitable drug in adequate dosage and at the desired rate.