For many parents, the perfect time of year (spring and summer) brings not only joy and positive emotions as adds to the problems associated with the disease of the child.
It was at this time comes exacerbation of chronic allergic diseases - hay fever, manifested symptoms resembling a cold.But the culprit rhinitis in children in this case are not viruses and hypothermia, and pollen of flowering plants, acting as an allergen. Content
state of health of children suffering from hay feverIt deteriorates in the garden, in the garden, in the woods or in the field.Some of them can not tolerate even the smell of hay - connected with this second title of the allergic disease, "hay fever."
Hay fever can develop at any age, but most often it occurs in 3-10-year-old children.At the same time the girls get sick less often.
Hay fever - inflammatory reaction on the part of the skin or mucous membranes due to increased
Depending on the timing of flowering plants allergizuyuschih some children allergy occur in the spring, while others - in the summer.But sometimes the symptoms of hay fever are held from early spring to late autumn.
emergence of such conditions contribute to hay fever:
But antigens can be not only in the pollen, but also in other parts of the plant (leaves, stems).The pollen can contain up to 10 allergens.
water-soluble portion of allergens affect mucous membranes and fat-soluble - skin.
Release of wind-pollinated plants, pollen occurs early in the morning, but the maximum concentration of it in the air marked the afternoon or evening, helped by dry windy weather.Allergenic pollen capacity stored for a long time.During and after the rain of pollen in the air almost none.
There is a calendar of flowering of various plants in each region.Average band Europe has three such periods: spring blossom trees bloom in early summer grasses in late summer - weeds.There
cross common allergens between pollen and food.For example, the birch pollen - with apricots, apples, nuts and cherries;pollen from a dandelion, wormwood and sunflower - a watermelon, melon, honey, margarine, sunflower oil, halva, potatoes.Increased sensitivity to pollen is often associated with an allergy to animal dander, house dust.
With the penetration of the allergen in the body increases the synthesis of antibodies of class IgE, which are fixed on special receptors.When joining the antigen to the antibodies allocated bioactive substances which promote allergies.As a result, after only 10-20 minutes of mucosal edema, increased mucus production, develop other symptoms of hay fever.
Children often marked form are allergic hay fever:
This form of the disease can be isolated or combined with each other.There are mild, moderate and severe disease.
much less marked in children symptoms caused by hay fever, from the cardiovascular, urinary, digestive and nervous systems.
disease often begins in children with skin redness, itching or a burning sensation in the eyes, the appearance of lacrimation and redness of eyes.Swollen eyelids, photophobia appears.Unlike viral and bacterial conjunctivitis, pollinosis at affects both eyes simultaneously.Can bother headache, sometimes (as opposed to the common cold) temperature rises.
child begins paroxysmal sneezing, nasal discharge clear, watery, it is difficult to breathe through the nose.The feeling of burning and itching can be felt in the ears and throat.
noted weakness, poor appetite, disturbed sleep.It appears irritability, headache, anxiety, children are capricious.These symptoms indicate the severity of the disease and reflect the changes in the nervous system.
due to edema respiratory mucosa appears cough, shortness of breath possible (difficult breathing out) until the attack of asthma.
on skin exposed parts of the body rash of urticaria type.Elements of the rash vary in size, pale pink or white with a red rim around.Sometimes rashes very much, they can fuse together.Rash accompanied by itching or burning of the skin.
sometimes develop angioedema: in the face and neck (and perhaps other parts of the body) appears mucous edema and subcutaneous tissue.
allergic dermatitis when hay fever occur much less frequently.In the open areas of the body after contact with stems (leaves) plants appear first reddening of the skin, followed by a rash in the form of bubbles.Accompanied by intense itching rash.
isolated development of asthma during hay fever in children is rare.Usually it is combined with the other manifestations (ocular, skin, rhinitis).For allergic bronchial asthma is characterized by the appearance of asthma attacks: wheezing, shortness of breath heard in the distance.
Cardio-vascular system occurs when hay fever heart palpitations, increased blood pressure.These changes disappear after a period of flowering plants.
Some kids at the signs of hay fever allergens defeat of the digestive system: nausea, violation of stool, pain in the epigastric region.
If contact with the allergen is not eliminated, it can be connected with the development of a bacterial infection complications (purulent conjunctivitis, sinusitis, etc.).
bacterial infections discharge from the eyes and nose are festering.It is important to remember, as some parents take for hay fever or acute respiratory viral infection and begin to treat the child yourself.
This is dangerous in that the allergic symptoms disappear, and it is possible to achieve even allergy medicines.Therefore, any disease of the child should contact their doctor.
hay fever usually assume the child is not difficult, given the manifestation of the disease connection with the period of flowering plants, ie annual seasonal exacerbation of the disease and the absence of symptoms in the offseason.An additional diagnostic criterion is the presence of relatives of the child allergic diseases.
There is also a specific diagnosis: identification of pollen allergens for the child.To this end, these surveys are conducted:
specific diagnosis is carried out with sets of pollen allergens large number of ornamental and fruit trees, grasses, weeds, flowers, cultivated plants.
Skin tests are conducted only in remission of any allergic diseases without exacerbation of any chronic disease, and off-season flowering plants.This shall not apply antiallergic agents and corticosteroids.
challenge with children is practically not carried out.
Modern Tactics treat hay fever is to conduct:
components of complex treatment of acute period:
complete elimination (avoiding contact with the allergen) can be achieved by moving the child to blossom season in another region whereNo plants caused by hay fever.But this is not always possible for various reasons.Therefore it is necessary in these cases, apply the measures of partial elimination:
Medication hay fever is the appointment of drugs that suppress the process of allergic inflammation and reduce the severity of clinical manifestations of the disease.
Such drugs include:
formulations may be used and the system (public) acts in the form of tablets and injections, and local - aerosols, drops, sprays, ointments.
basis of medical treatments are antihistamines, which are assigned not only to relieve the acute symptoms of allergies, but also for the entire period of flowering.Vasoconstrictor drugs are used not more than 7 days in order to avoid irreversible changes in the mucous atrophy.
blockers histamine receptors are divided into four generations, differ both their activity and duration have effects and side effects.
first-generation drugs (diphenhydramine, Suprastin, Diazolin, Fenkarol et al.) Have a quick, but short-term effect - they have to be applied several times a day.Moreover, they cause confusion, drowsiness, nausea and impaired stool.Therefore, children are practically not appointed.
Medicines second generation (ebastine, astemizole, cetirizine, Tsetrin, Fenistil, Aerius, Ketitofen et al.) Do not give drowsiness and operate throughout the day.They are not addictive and can if necessary be used for a long time, but have a toxic effect on the cardiovascular system and liver.
Most young patients to allergists selected products of the third and fourth generations (Telfast, Turf, Gismanal, levocetirizine, Lordestin et al.).These drugs have a more pronounced and more prolonged effect (p 1 can be used. A day) and have virtually no side effects.But they can be used only with the 3-year-olds.
For pediatric practice antihistamines available in various forms, drops, tablets, syrups and ointments.
Cromones used to treat allergic rhinitis (rhinitis) and conjunctivitis.These drugs can also be administered at the mucosal lesions of the larynx, pharynx, trachea, manifested in the form of allergic cough.Releases these drugs in the form of droplets (the eyes and nose), sprays and aerosols.They are usually prescribed a month before the pollen season, and for the entire period of pollination of dangerous plants.
Corticosteroids are used in case of severe hay fever, with no effect on the used funds in allergic lesions of the paranasal sinuses.They prescribe a short course at the maximum manifestation of symptoms of the disease following treatment with non-hormonal drugs.Separate application of the remedies is unacceptable.
right to choose a drug, dosage and duration of the course, a combination of drugs can only be a doctor depending on the severity of symptoms of hay fever, the localization process, the child's age.
hypoallergenic diet is recommended for children in the period of seasonal exacerbation of the process, as hay fever may be associated in children with food allergies.From the child's diet must exclude all foods that have cross-reactivity with pollen allergens.
identify a hazard for the baby plant, an allergist gives specific recommendations for a set of products that should not give the child, each of the plants have cross-reactivity to certain foods.
In remission of hay fever is widely used in pediatrics allergen immunotherapy (ASIT).The method consists in the gradual "of familiarizing" of the body to the allergen, eventually reaction to the allergen should disappear.Asit - well-proven, promising method is particularly effective in children (shown in 3 years).
for such treatment is used to set the child pollen allergens.Allergovaktsina introduced in the clinic, only an allergist, subcutaneously or in the nose.Children are widely used as the introduction allergovaktsiny under the tongue in the form of drops.The dose is gradually increased and thus the sensitivity of the body is reduced.
Perhaps a Asit in pre-season period or year-round.The effect of such an immunotherapy can last several years.
If a child diagnosed with hay fever, parents should treat the investigation and treatment seriously.If you let the disease take its course, the most "harmless" allergic rhinitis may go into severe asthma, to treat that is not easy.
unacceptable to self-medicate the child as therapy in each case the physician selected individually.It is only strictly follow all recommendations from the allergist selecting an appropriate diet to immunotherapy allergens.The only way to achieve long-term remission or even a complete cure of the child.