German measles - a disease related to infection with a high degree of contagiousness.The causative agent - the virus of the same name.
The main contingent of patients - have not undergone the necessary vaccinations to children aged two to nine years.As for all childhood diseases after rubella in adults observed the most severe course of the disease with a variety of complications.This infection is extremely dangerous for pregnant women in early pregnancy - is fraught with infrequent congenital abnormalities of newborn and fetal mortality.
carrier of infection is ailing people.The path of infection - airborne (talking, kissing), contact (use the same dishes, through children's toys), vertical (from mother to fetus).The incubation period of the infection - 11 to 24 days.The patient becomes the distributor of the disease one week before and after the eruption.Abjection newborn some long - sometimes up to 20 months.
Etiology and pathogenesis of the disease.
penetration of the virus in the human body
The vast majority of patients in the early days of the disease manifests skin rash, which is oval or round pale red patches of small size, are not fused together, sometimes there is a small protuberance above the skin.The rash may be itchy.Initially it appears on the face, neck, then gradually going to spread throughout the body.The most typical localization of lesions on the back, the back surface of the hands, buttocks, the front surface of the lower extremities in the absence of the palms and soles.Is an atypical rash on the mucous membrane of the oral cavity in the form of very small spots grouped.
The disease occurs in children, usually without consequences, complications occur in children with lesions of the immune system, rash disappear in a few days, leaving behind age spots.Very rare lung disease, upper respiratory tract, arthritis, thrombocytopenic purpura.Adults are extremely dangerous, but as rare brain damage in the form of encephalitis or meningoencephalitis.In the case of this illness pregnant there is no danger for the woman directly, but increase the risk of malformations in the unborn child.
diagnosis and treatment.
must be differentiated from scarlet fever, measles, infectious mononucleosis, allergic rash, adenovirus and enterovirus exanthema.The diagnosis of rubella is stated in cases of the above symptoms characteristic of the disease, the child is taken into account epidemiological environment, lack of adequate vaccination.Verification of the diagnosis carried out by a blood test for antibodies, which is on the first days of the disease, and repeated after 7-10 days.Significant increase in the amount of antibodies is 4 times or more.The general analysis of blood marked leukopenia, relative lymphocytosis, an increase in the number of plasma cells.Treatment overwhelmingly reduced to symptomatic, except combat complications arise.author of the publication: Valeri Konstantinov